One can comfortably say that coffee is the most common drink all over the world today. This drink traces its way back to the Ethiopian highlands where, when taking care of his flock of goats, Kaldi, a legend, found coffee berries. The young boy found that after feeding on some berries, his goats were so energetic that they did not go to sleep like they normally did. Enthralled, Kaldi also ate the berries, and he experienced the same thing. For a while, though, the wonderful effects of coffee remained latent to many. Gemalelddin from Yemen furthered the popularity of coffee after seeing the Chinese people prepare and drink tea. After attempting unsuccessfully to produce the same drink using many leaves, he travelled to Ethiopia and returned with leaves that he had plucked from a coffee farm. He didn’t make really strong coffee, but he found a huge improvement. Since then, this beverage has gained prominence and became the world’s most famous beverage drink, and it will retain this popularity in the future.
As the years progressed and coffee became commonplace with citizens, it also became simpler in its definition. Two major classes, Arabica and Robusta, fell under the coffee species. The scientific name of Arabica is Coffea Arabica L. And the scientific name of Robusta is Coffea canephora. The coffee trees or shrubs measure 2 to 7 metres and have alternate, circular, pointed, and glossy leaves. The leaves are between 7 and 20 centimetres long and between 3 and 7 centimetres thick. Coffee shrubs grow white flowers on their axils that have dense clusters. When mature, the shrubs grow fruits which are yellow, dark red, or pink in colour. They develop into brown, fleshy, and ovoid berries that are about 1.2 cm and 1.6 cm in length when the fruits dry (Virginia, Smith, Steiman, & Elevitch, 2013). Today, coffee in Africa, South America, and other regions has grown from an elusively known shrub to a widely farmed commodity.
Have farmers in various parts of the world conducted coffee farming since the discovery of coffee by Kaldi. The bulk of coffee comes from subtropical regions and countries near the equator. The humid and warm equatorial regions and subtropical countries on either side of the equator are ideal for coffee farming. In these subtropical conditions, Arabica coffee, for example, performs well. Within coffee bands, coffee farmers live in more than fifty nations around the globe, subsuming countless developed nations. In places such as South America, India, Indonesia, Africa, and the Middle East, coffee plantations occur. Developing countries consider this commodity to be their second largest export and depend mainly on it for revenue (Robertson, 2010). The combination of the correct temperature and soil characteristics allows Africa the best coffee growing region of preference.
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- Virginia, B., Smith, E., Steiman, S., & Elevitch, C. (2013). Farm and Forestry Production and Marketing profile for Coffee. Craig Elevitch. Pacific Island: PAR.