Evaluation and Contrasting
When Does Cross-Cultural Motivation Enhance Expatriate Effectiveness? A Multilevel Investigation of the Moderating Roles of Subsidiary Support and Cultural Distance
1.1 Research Scope
The research has extended the literature regarding cross-cultural motivation; cultural distance has been conceptualized by the authors as the foreign subsidiary-level construct to capture expatriates’ collective consensus.
In the literature, the authors have discussed the previous theories and hypotheses regarding expatriate effectiveness, expatriate cross-cultural motivation, and effectiveness, the beneficial situations for cross-cultural motivation, moderating role of subsidiary support, subsidiary cultural distance’s moderating role, and integrative model.
The study sample consists of the 500 fortune United Based multinational companies that dispatch expatriates across the globe in the energy industry. 1,082 expatriates were contacted via e-mail to participate in the web-based survey. The survey of the research was conducted 9 months after completing the 2006 performance appraisals. English was used to administer the survey. The research measures were rated on a 1 to 5 scale ranging where 1 indicated ‘strongly disagree’ and 5 indicated ‘strongly agree.’ Reliabilities and correlations were checked for all variables by using a two-tailed statistical test. The research is based on the multilevel data, and the authors tested the hypothesis using HLM (Hierarchical Linear Modeling). The authors also tested Cross-level interactions by regressing the level 1 scope onto predictors of level 2. It was suggested by the model that a positive relationship exists between work adjustment and expatriate cross-cultural motivation. Additional tests were also conducted by the authors to strengthen their findings’ validity further.
- Chen, G., Kirkman, B., Kim, K. & Farah, C., 2010. When does cross-cultural motivation enhance expatriate effectiveness? A multilevel investigation of the moderating roles of subsidiary support and cultural distance. Academy of Management Journal, pp. 1110-1130.
- Froese, F. J., 2012. Motivation and adjustment of self-initiated expatriates: the case of expatriate academics in South Korea. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(6), pp. 1095-1112.